Measurement Capabilities

State-of-the-art X-ray and optical diagnostics are available at the DCS to enable time-resolved, in-situ, atomic-scale investigations of condensed matter phenomena under dynamic compression.

Diffraction/Scattering Detectors

Time-resolved X-ray diffraction to measure atomic-scale changes during dynamic compression and deformation.  Phenomena that can be examined include structural transformations, texture evolution, deformation induced anisotropic strains, and evolution of microstructural heterogeneities.

  • Indirect (phosphor-based) X-ray diffraction detectors are capable of recording four frames of 100-ps-duration X-ray images with an interframe spacing of 153.4 ns, to match the X-ray period in the 24-bunch mode (Active Area Diameter: 75 mm, 120, mm, 150 mm, High X-ray DQE up to 35 keV.)
  • Powder diffraction measurements are obtained using a pink X-ray beam with energies extending up to 36 keV and X-ray spectral bandwidths of a few percent. Broadband X-rays are also available for Laue diffraction measurements on single crystals.

Imaging Detectors

Time-resolved, high-spatial-resolution (~5 µm), phase contrast imaging or absorption radiography measurements to obtain a sequence of images during dynamic events.  Such imaging measurements can be used to observe the evolution of micro- and meso-scale changes during dynamic loading.  The scintillator-based, indirect-detection detectors are optimized for 24-bunch mode and capable of recording eight frames per experiment with an interframe spacing of 153.4 ns. [Developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)]

  • LYSO:Ce scintillator with microscope objectives and four, dual-frame ICCDs
  • Field-of-View: from (1.25 mm)^2 up to white beam size (See white beam sizes on the Available X-Ray Beam Spot Sizes table on the X-Ray Beam Modes and Properties page)
  • Synchronized to 24-bunch

Optical Diagnostics for Time-Resolved Continuum Measurements

Time-resolved continuum diagnostics, such as single-point and multi-point laser velocimetry (e.g., VISAR and PDV), are available for simultaneous acquisition of continuum measurements along with the X-ray diffraction and/or imaging measurements.

Particle velocity measurements are obtained via optically coupled rack mounted VISAR or PDV systems located in the DCS Instrumentation Room. The custom made interferometers are highly versatile and stable, offering multiple Velocity-Per-Fringe (VPF) capabilities for the VISAR systems and continuous PDV upshifting capability. Each interferometer includes gated and CW laser sources, high speed and high gain detectors, multiple high speed digitizers, and multiple fiber optic lines to each end station. The interferometry systems can be controlled remotely from the impact facility control rooms. Interferometry analysis software support is provided.

The following optical diagnostics are available at the DCS:
PDV System
Impact Facilities
• 8 Channels with upshifting capability
• 5 W IPG laser with RIO seed laser for upshifting

Visar System
Impact Facilities
• 8 fixed VPF Push-Pull Point VISARs
• Return light splitting for dual VPF measurements
• Available VPFs (m/s/fringe): 72, 95, 181, 308, 458, 748, 945, 1555
• 18 W VERDI laser source

Laser Shock Facility
• 8 fixed VPFs Push-Pull Point VISARs
• Return light splitting for dual VPF measurements
• 2 variable VPF line VISARs
• 2 streak cameras set with 20 ns streak windows
• 25 mJ, 532 nm laser source

Dedicated Optical Diagnostic Digitizers
Impact Facilities
• 8 digitizer channels (12.5 GHz and 10 GHz) for PDV
• 8 digitizer channels (2.5 GHz and 10 GHz) for VISAR
Laser Shock Facility
• 4 channels per each 6 GHz, 8 GHz, and 12.5 GHz digitizer (12 channels total)
• 4 digitizer channels (8GHz) for timing

Model of the Four-Frame Detector System.

LANL X-Ray Imaging System in Use.